Sustainable building design in low income countries – a Dundee dental student’s perspective

I’m delighted today to publish a guest post from Olivia Welch, a dental student at the University of Dundee.

At the end of her second year of study on the Bachelor of Dental Surgery degree course at the University of Dundee, Olivia decided to undertake an intercalated BMSc degree in International Health. I was introduced to Olivia by two of my colleagues from Dundee, Neil Merrylees and Peter Mossey, both of whom were aware of the MalDent Project and thought that it may provide an opportunity for Olivia to select a relevant topic for her dissertation. After a wide-ranging discussion, a subject area was chosen and in this post, Olivia describes her experience.

This time last year I was on a Zoom call with Professor Bagg, marking the beginning of my involvement with the MalDent Project. Having just decided to take a year out of dental school to study for a BMSc in International Health, I was searching for a topic to focus my dissertation on.

The collaboration between Malawi and Scotland to design a state-of-the-art facility in a country recognised as “low-resource” captured my interest, and the enthusiasm and ambition of those driving the project was infectious. As a result, I undertook a research project focussing on the factors affecting the design team’s decision-making process in their efforts to make the Malawian dental school a highly sustainable building – environmentally, economically, and socially.

My eyes were opened to challenges faced by architects unique to this region, such as how to safely store captured rainwater in a malaria-endemic country, where standing water poses a hazard to public health. My research revealed that difficulty sourcing environmentally responsible materials and tradesmen experienced in building with such materials in the local area were one of the main obstacles the design team had to overcome. In addition, this project was backdropped by the COVID-19 pandemic, the restrictions of which forced the team to hold virtual meetings to begin designing the dental school after just one site visit.

Attending an on-line meeting with members of the design team and MalDent Project

Conversely, it was inspiring to see the creativity the circumstantial limitations of this project inspired. Indeed, as mused by one of the architects of the dental school, constraints are a vital component in nurturing creativity in the design process. For instance, the demand for a building with low running costs combined with a lack of local expertise in maintaining advanced air-conditioning systems led to the incorporation of passive design in the building, which takes advantage of the climate and clever use of shading and ventilation to maintain a comfortable temperature range in the building with little to no mechanical intervention, a highly sustainable solution.

Carrying out this research project allowed me to step out of the prescriptive learning format of my dental degree and nurture skills beyond “drilling and filling” by providing me with my first experience carrying out formal interviews. On clinics, we employ the ‘golden minute’ whereby, if you allow the patient, most of the relevant information will emerge, so long as they are not interrupted. It may sound simple, but this is a difficult practice to exercise because humans are not naturally comfortable with silences. After carrying out seven interviews each lasting an hour, I have no doubt this practice will improve my patient consultations when I return to clinics in September.

This experience would not have been possible without the support of those kind enough to volunteer their time and knowledge to this project, and I was genuinely touched by the willingness of the design team to be involved. The next step for me is endeavouring to get my dissertation findings published: I recently met with Professor Bagg, Professor Platt and my project supervisor Dr Fioratou, to brainstorm ideas and as always, I came away from the discussion inspired by our discussion about aspects of my dissertation I could possibly focus on.

A meeting to discuss publication of dissertation findings with Dr Fioratou, Professor Platt and Professor Bagg

To see the ambition of providing Malawi with its first dental program coming to fruition has been inspirational to witness at this early stage in my dental career and has taught me this: anything can be achieved, it just takes belief to make the first step, the rest will fall into place as there is a wealth of talented and benevolent people out there willing and able to help make it happen. I wish everyone involved the very best of luck and I look forward to visiting the completed building in Malawi someday soon!

Posing with my final dissertation

To conclude this post, I would like to congratulate Olivia on achieving a First Class Honours classification for her intercalated BMSc after a year of very hard work and commitment on her part. Good luck when you re-join your BDS colleagues next session and we look forward to keeping you updated on progress with the building.

Finally, grateful thanks are due to Professor Chris Platt, Chair of Architecture, Mackintosh School of Architecture, Glasgow School of Art and to Mr Paul East, Associate, John McAslan + Partners, for their support. Thanks also to those who agreed to be interviewed by Olivia as part of her data gathering, both in Malawi and the UK.

Supporting the Oral Health Policy – a new appointment, CPD approval, and linking with the Ministry of Education

As regular visitors to our blog will know, one of the main work streams of the MalDent Project is the development of an Oral Health Policy for Malawi, together with an Implementation Plan. Work on drafting the policy is nearing completion in preparation for a planned launch in August. Three recent developments map perfectly onto the policy objectives.

First, the Ministry of Health has recently appointed Dr Martha Chipanda as Malawi’s National Oral Health Coordinator. Martha has been involved with the MalDent Project from the outset in 2017, when she was part of the team that drafted the curriculum for the newly established BDS programme at the Kamuzu University of Health Sciences (formerly the University of Malawi College of Medicine). At that point Martha was a dental surgeon at the Kamuzu Central Hospital in Lilongwe, but more recently she has moved to her current position as a dental surgeon at Mzuzu Central Hospital. Martha will continue to deliver clinical service in Mzuzu in addition to the duties of her new role in the Ministry of Health.

Martha (centre) at the Ministry of Health in Lilongwe following a meeting in 2018 relating to a task-shifting proposal from Bridge2Aid in support of emergency dentistry provision

Secondly, after a significant amount of work by its Secretary, Dr Wiston Mukiwa, the Dental Association of Malawi has been officially approved by the Medical Council of Malawi as a provider of CPD.

Wiston receiving thanks and a gift from Andrew Paterson of Bridge2Aid after he had spoken at a Smileawi CPD meeting in Mzuzu in 2019

The Dental Association has received the relevant certification, dated 22 June 2021 and valid for a period of five years:

Like Martha, Wiston has been involved with the MalDent Project from its inception and is now a part-time Lecturer on the new BDS programme. His role as Secretary of the Dental Association of Malawi has been a real asset to many of our activities since 2017, particularly in our communications with the Ministry of Health. It is fitting that the first educational materials to be supported with official CPD credits for dental therapists are the learning modules launched on 31st March this year following the Scottish Government – funded collaboration between the Dental Association of Malawi, Smileawi, Bridge2Aid and ProDentalCPD.

Thirdly, a major emphasis within the new Oral Health Policy will be on prevention of dental disease in children. Ronald Manjomo, our PhD student at Kamuzu University of Health Sciences, is making great progress with his ongoing review of systematic reviews of dental caries prevention in children and case studies from around the world. Professor David Conway, from the University of Glasgow Dental School Community Oral Health Research Group, has joined the supervisory team and is providing excellent additional guidance and support for Ronald.

All smiles at a recent PhD meeting with Ronald

Linked to Ronald’s work is the planned national Child Oral Health Survey, scheduled for 2022. A critical initial step has been to establish contact with the Malawi Government Ministry of Education. Following discussions with our Oral Health Policy Task Force colleagues in the Ministry of Health, we arranged a meeting with Albert Saka (Chief School Health Nutrition HIV and AIDS Officer) which took place on 22 June 2021.

Peter Chimimba, Albert Saka, Lorna Macpherson and I at the conclusion of our meeting

Albert was extremely positive about the planned survey and together with his team has agreed to guide and support us through the processes that are required to gain the necessary permissions and to establish appropriate communication channels with the schools and teachers.

These three areas of progress will all help to support implementation of the national Oral Health Policy scheduled for sign-off and launch this Summer.

The ‘MalDent Student Aid’ charity is launched

Following approval of the BDS curriculum by the University of Malawi College of Medicine in March 2019, I had a number of conversations with Malawian colleagues to identify ways in which we could provide support for the students who would be joining this fledgling programme. An obvious possibility which came to mind was the acquisition of relevant dental textbooks for the Blantyre campus library. However, I was advised that the combined costs of University fees, accommodation and food prove financially challenging for some of the students in higher education and that a more valuable route of support would be to establish a mechanism for funding a bursary scheme for those who were struggling to cover their costs.

It was then explained that for medical students there already existed a programme called ‘Medic to Medic‘, administered by the University, which provided means-tested financial support for those needing some additional money for daily living. Thus was born the concept of ‘Dentist to Dentist‘, to provide a similar bursary scheme for dental students.

We have established a new charity called ‘Maldent Student Aid’ (Registered Charity No.: SC050001) which will raise money here in the UK to provide a source of funds for the ‘Dentist to Dentist’ financial aid scheme, administered by the Kamuzu University of Health Sciences (formerly the University of Malawi College of Medicine). As I did for our MalDent Project visual identity, I turned again to my brother Simon to design the logo for our new charity:

Our first donation

I was a dental student in Edinburgh between 1975 and 1979, and at the end of 2019 we had our 40th Reunion at the Apex Hotel in Edinburgh. Big thanks are due to classmates Shirley Hopkins and Yvonne Millar who undertook all the organisation and ensured that we had a great time. The relevance of this event is that I had mentioned to another former classmate, Alastair Bryden, that I was going to be establishing a small charity to support Malawian dental students. Unknown to me, he had shared this information with Shirley and Yvonne who in turn gained agreement from all my classmates that the evening’s raffle proceeds should provide the first donation to the charity. I was really touched by their thoughtfulness and generosity.

After dinner, I was invited to speak for a few minutes about the MalDent Project:

Shortly afterwards the raffle was drawn and realised a total of £500 – all of which my generous class-mates have donated to MalDent Student Aid. This was truly ‘Dentist to Dentist‘ and I hope a good omen for the future success of the concept. So a massive ‘thank you’ to all my great friends and colleagues in the Edinburgh University BDS Class of ’79!

Keeping in touch and supporting our cause

We have established a web-site for our charity at, which explains our purpose and vision:

The web-site includes a link to this blog to ensure that supporters are kept up to date with the broader MalDent Project, but we will also update it with news and views as the charity develops. There is also a facility for making one-off or regular donations via CAF Donate for those who would like to support our cause.

Ultimately our ambition is to widen access to the new BDS programme in Malawi for those requiring some additional financial support with their studies, so that in due course they can join our MalDent Project mission of achieving ‘Oral health for all’.

Establishing a charity is not as straightforward as I had originally thought and there are a number of colleagues that I would like to thank:

Ewen Dyer and Jayne Clifford at Martin Aitken and Co. were extremely helpful with preparing and submitting the application for charitable status from the Office of the Scottish Charity Regulator. I am very grateful for their advice and support.

Petrina Sweeney, Alex Mackay and Niall Rogerson, three of my University of Glasgow colleagues, have joined me as Trustees of the charity and I look forward to working closely with them as we build a sustainable future for MalDent Student Aid.

Finally, a massive thanks to all my Malawian friends who have encouraged me to establish this partnership between MalDent Student Aid and the Kamuzu University of Health Sciences ‘Dentist to Dentist‘ programme. It’s taken a while but we got there in the end!

World Health Assembly approval of Oral Health Resolution coincides with great progress on finalising Malawi’s National Oral Health Policy

For those of us engaged in global oral health initiatives, the Oral Health Resolution that was proposed by the WHO in January 2021 marked a very important moment and was mentioned in an earlier blog post. Many of the recommended actions resonated strongly with the direction of travel being followed by the Malawi Government Oral Health Policy Task Force.

On 27th May 2021, at the Seventy-fourth World Health Assembly (WHA), the Oral Health Resolution was approved. Delegates asked WHO to develop a strategy on tackling oral diseases and to translate the global strategy into an action plan for oral health. You can read more of the detail here.

It was especially fitting for the MalDent Project that the Malawi Government was invited to make a statement at the WHA, which read as follows:


By coincidence, a close to final draft of Malawi’s forthcoming Oral Health Policy was being reviewed by Task Force members and other Government stakeholders at a workshop in Mangochi on 27th-29th May 2021, with the aim of producing a final, polished document ready for presentation to the Ministry of Health Technical Working Group. The workshop delegates are pictured below:

The Oral Health Policy Workshop delegates

The photo shows (left to right):

Dr James Mchenga ( Academic Lead, KUHeS Dental School)

Dr Michael Udedi (Assistant Director – Clinical Services for Mental Health and Substance Abuse at MOH)

Miss Annie Mwapasa (Administrator, MalDent Project at KUHeS Dental School)

Mr Brian Chaima (Principal Economist, Real Sector Policy Analysis Section, Ministry of Economic Planning and Development)

Miss Yacinta Phiri, in front of Brian (Economist, Planning and Policy Department, MOH)

Dr. Martha Chipanda (Head of Dental Department, Mzuzu Central Hospital)

Mr. Noel Kasomekera, behind Martha (Technical Assistant-NCD Unit at MOH)

Mr. Daniel Ntengula (Economist, Planning and Policy Department, MOH)

Ms. Gloria Kadangwe, behind Daniel (Administrative Assistant for Dean of Medicine at KUHeS)

Dr. Wiston Mukiwa (Clinical Lecturer at KUHeS Dental School and Secretary at DAM)

Dr. Peter Chimimba (Team lead and Coordinator of MalDent Project at KUHeS Dental School)

Dr. Jones Kaponda Masiye ( Deputy Director Clinical Services – NCD at MOH)

The team at the meeting worked hard to finesse the draft Oral Health Policy (Version 8) that had been produced by the Oral Health Policy Task Force and which had been informed by the Concept Paper, Narrative Review and Situation Analysis previously reviewed and approved by the Ministry of Health Technical Working Group. This last push allowed a final polishing to ensure that the version of the Oral Health Policy that would be presented to the Technical Working Group would satisfy all the relevant editorial and formatting requirements of the Malawi Government.

The hard work was interspersed with occasional refreshment breaks!

Fresh air and relaxation outdoors

The next stage will be a review of the final draft by all members of the Oral Health Policy Task Force before consideration by the Ministry of Health Technical Working Group and eventual sign-off by the Secretary for Health and the Minister of Health.

Annex 1 of the Oral Health Policy will be the Implementation Plan, which is followed by Annex 2, the Monitoring and Evaluation Plan. As with any policy, it is the implementation which is both the most important element but also the most challenging. However, if the energy and commitment of the Task Force to date are anything to go by, the momentum will continue as Malawi pushes forward with its oral health improvement agenda, in line with the WHO Oral Health Resolution.

Letter from Wits University – great progress for young Malawian dental academics

One of the major challenges facing any newly established undergraduate dental surgery programme is identification of the teaching faculty. In this regard, the new BDS course in Malawi has been very fortunate to have recruited Dr James Mchenga as the founding academic head and Drs Jessie Mlotha-Namarika and Wiston Mukiwa as experienced clinical lecturers.

There remains, however, a need to identify young dentists who are keen to pursue academic careers and to become the dental teachers and researchers of the future. Consequently it has been very exciting to see the appointment of four Assistant Lecturers onto the staff team. They are currently all attending masters degree programmes at Wits University in Johannesburg and this post has been written with their cooperation, as a means of introducing them formally to readers of the MalDent blog.

Wits University, Johannesburg, South Africa

The School of Oral Health Sciences at Wits University is based in the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital and is a joint member of the Faculty of Health Sciences and the Gauteng Department of Health. In addition to its 5 year undergraduate Bachelor of Dental Science and 3 year Bachelor of Oral Health Sciences courses, the School runs a range of Masters and PhD programmes.

Throughout the preparations for establishing and delivering a BDS programme in Malawi, the School of Oral Health Sciences at Wits University has been a very important source of advice and support, particularly in respect of the curriculum development. Professor Simon Nemutandani, the Dean of the Wits School of Oral Health Sciences, was a very significant player during the second curriculum conference we held in November 2018 and also provided valuable help to the local team both before and after that conference.

Professor Simon Nemutandani (centre) in conversation with Professor Dixie Banda (left) and Dr Peter Chimimba (right) during the second BDS Curriculum Conference at Mangochi in November 2018

So, without further ado it is a pleasure to introduce the four Assistant Lecturers who are now working hard on their studies at Wits University.

Dr Mirriam Chipinga is studying towards a masters degree in Orthodontics and Dr Tasneem Chikwatu is pursuing her masters in Restorative Dentistry. Mirriam and Tasneem both arrived in Johannesburg ahead of their two colleagues.

Mirriam and Tasneem sent the following message:

After all the challenges we had in Malawi with our visa applications, we finally were able to travel to South Africa for our studies. We got here on February 5, but we moved to a new place after a month. We settled very well although we had some pressure trying to balance between settling in and studies because we got here two days before commencement of our studies and we started processing our moving to a new place almost right away.

The other challenge was that it was our first time having to study online (we still are, due to the Covid-19 pandemic) but it’s all good now, we have gotten used to it.

Things are going on well so far. Our studies are being conducted online. We are learning not only our course of study at a deeper level, but new ways of studying. For example, the way our programme has been planned (changes made to adapt to the current Covid situation) has taught us to be creative and proactive which we believe will make things easier for us if implemented when we get back home in Malawi.

We do not go out except for morning jogs and sometimes for grocery shopping, so we are mostly indoors. We just finished block 3 classes on Friday, and have started with assessments.” 

Mirriam and Tasneem out to do the shopping

Next, we can introduce Dr Nathan Lungu, who is studying for a masters degree in Oral Surgery:

Nathan at work on his laptop compute

Nathan sent the following message:

“First I would to take this opportunity to thank the management of Malawi College of Medicine and the MalDent Project for offering me a full scholarship to study Masters of Science in Oral Surgery at Witwatersrand University in South Africa, so that I can have more knowledge to impart to the Bachelor of Dentistry students after I graduate.

Currently I am in my first year; this is the third month since schools were opened on 8th February. So far so good, lessons are going on well. My knowledge is being increased day by day as I attend the class sessions and study. I hope by the end of my Masters I will have more knowledge in dentistry than the time I came here at the University of Witwatersrand.

Of course challenges are there; without challenges there is no life. The most challenge I have encountered is due to the coronavirus pandemic, whereby lessons are done virtually without face to face contact, hence we don’t engage much with our lecturers.”

Finally, we introduce Dr Don Chiwaya, who is studying for a masters degree in Community Dentistry:

Don at his desk

Don sent the following message:

“I arrived on 26 February 2021 having delayed for almost a month due to a positive Covid 19 test. I was so anxious as I could not know when I will depart for school. I did the test several times and when it finally came negative I was so happy as I did not want to miss again this academic year. On arrival, I did registration, and fortunately it was extended, I believe to give an opportunity to people like me.

Don attending registration on the main campus

Dr Tasneem Chikwatu and Dr Miriam Chipinga oriented me on how to go about life in Johannesburg – many thanks to them.

Don enjoying a visit to Pretoria’s Union Buildings, with Nelson Mandela’s statue in the background

Finally now I am settling in well attending to classes and assessments. Due to the pandemic most of our work is done online and we are ever in doors. What I miss most is the physical interaction with my colleagues as I believe we would share and learn better experiences on oral health issues across Africa and maybe even across the world. But as for now will go with this ‘new normal’ as we wait for the return of the ‘NORMAL’

Nelson Mandela spoke on many occasions about the importance of education to individuals and countries. He once said:

“Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.”

On another occasion he said:

“Young people must take it upon themselves to ensure that they receive the highest education possible so that they can represent us well in the future as future leaders.”

Mirriam, Tasneem, Nathan and Don have all accepted the opportunity they have been given to further their education to enhance the teaching they will deliver to future generations of dental students in Malawi and to become future leaders of their profession in the country. As the Malawi Government Ministry of Health prepares to launch its new Oral Health Policy and Implementation Plan later this year, the timing could not be be more appropriate for investment in developing keen young clinical academics to play their role in Malawi’s exciting oral health improvement agenda.

Back on the road – this time with thanks to NHS Lothian

One element of the MalDent Project which has been significantly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic is Phase 2 of the refurbishment of the Dental Department at Kamuzu Central Hospital in Lilongwe. Back in 2019 we had purchased a shipping container which had been delivered to Dentaid’s premises and was being filled with donated and serviced dental equipment. The plan had been to send the container by ship in early 2020 and for the team from Dentaid and Henry Schein Dental to undertake the installation of the equipment in June 2020. Sadly the pandemic meant a cancellation of that plan and the container is still at Dentaid’s HQ!

In December 2019, I had been approached by Caroline Haywood, who is the Assistant Service Manager for Oral Health Services at NHS Lothian. She was working on a dental chair replacement programme and Professor Angus Walls, the Clinical Director, suggested that Caroline contact me to see whether we would be interested in a donation of the four chairs that were to be removed in March / April 2020. I sent photos of these A-dec chairs to Stuart Bassham at Dentaid who agreed that they would be eminently suitable for Lilongwe. You can guess what happened – we were thwarted by the COVID-19 travel restrictions. Undeterred, however, Caroline persuaded her colleagues to store the chairs for us until restrictions were lifted.

The silver lining was that three further dental chairs were replaced as part of the programme in early May 2021, so on Friday 14th May we planned to collect all seven chairs for delivery to Dentaid.

A long time family friend, Stan Harvey, agreed to come along with me. This was to be his second dental chair delivery, having accompanied me to Southampton on a previous mission. Stan is a fully qualified professional HGV driver and a fantastic companion to have along on jobs like this.

At 1pm we picked up the van from Leslie Commercials, who always provide a very friendly, courteous and efficient service. We headed straight through to Edinburgh Dental Institute in Lauriston Place and were admitted to the goods entrance to load up. Paul, our fantastic Head Porter at Glasgow Dental Hospital, had lent me a skateboard trolley to help us move the chairs. It was heavy and awkward work – every part of a dental chair seems to swivel as soon as pressure is applied! However, the loading was completed in just over an hour.

I was delighted that Caroline was able to come across and meet us as we had been exchanging mails for many months. I suspect that she hadn’t realised she would be part of the loading team, together with George MacDonald, the Facilities Manager, Stan and myself, but she joined in willingly! I am very grateful to Caroline and to Angus Walls for the chair donation and for the extended period of storage.

Stan and Caroline all smiles after the challenges of loading the van

I should add a word of explanation on our destination. Until a few days before we left, we had assumed we would be heading to Dentaid’s base in Southampton. However, Stuart Bassham contacted me early in the week to explain that for logistical reasons we should deliver the consignment to Mission & Relief Logistics in Aylesford, near Maidstone in Kent. Whilst it would have been very nice to catch up in person with Stuart, there was a ‘Plan B’ reunion since my brother Simon lives in Ashford, which is only about 17 miles away from Maidstone. Accordingly we arranged that Simon would come across to help with unloading and then we’d convene at the nearby Maidstone Services on the M20 for coffee, cake and a chat.

After leaving Edinburgh we drove South to the Great Barr Premier Inn just off Junction 7 of the M6 for an overnight stay. This is a stopping off point that’s worth remembering for future deliveries of chairs. In addition to a very friendly welcome at the hotel reception, we spotted both a fish and chip shop and an Indian restaurant next door together with a petrol station opposite – not an inflated motorway services price in sight!

Van and team fully rested after our overnight stop at the Premier Inn – ready for the 6.30am departure

We set off early the next morning, stopping for some breakfast en route, and reached Mission & Relief Logistics Ltd just before 10am. We were greeted by Michael Harrison, who runs the company, and his relative Louis, both of whom had a great sense of humour and ‘can do’ approach. I explained that loading the van had been quite an effort and I that I had some concerns about the offloading – I should not have worried.

Stan promptly reversed the van very expertly through the warehouse entrance …

… and we set about initially removing smaller components before tackling the chairs themselves:

Michael was straight onto the job in hand

What transformed the unloading was the availability of a manual hydraulic forklift:

Hydraulics can make all the difference!

Shortly after we began unloading, Simon arrived …

The Brothers Bagg!

…. and with all of us engaged …

… we had the van emptied in about 40 minutes.

Forty minutes from full to empty – ready for the drive back home

The load was all safely secured in a large container at the back of the warehouse. In due course Michael will deliver the chairs to Stuart at Dentaid where they will receive the full servicing, checks and repairs as necessary before joining the container bound for Lilongwe. However, for now it was time to bid farewell to Michael and Louis and head for coffee and cake.

Job done!

After a really enjoyable catch-up with Simon we hit the road for the return drive up to Glasgow. The traffic was remarkably light and we were back in Glasgow just before 8.30pm: another small piece of Scotland – Malawi partnership working complete.

Our trusty steed enjoys a sunny Sunday rest back in Glasgow


Many thanks are due to Caroline Haywood, Angus Walls and NHS Lothian for donating the dental chairs – we will keep you informed of progress.

It was a real pleasure to meet Michael and Louis at Mission & Relief Logistics Ltd – good humour and ingenuity are a great combination!

Thanks to Simon for helping with the offloading and for directing us to the coffee and cake.

Last, but by no means least, big thanks are due to Stan for being such good company on the trip and for great support with the heavy lifting and driving (particularly in reverse!).

Planning gets underway for Malawi’s first national child oral health survey

The MalDent Project has at its core a philosophy of prevention of oral and dental disease. This under-pinning mantra of ‘prevention, prevention, prevention’ which was coined at the National Oral Health Policy Workshop, is emerging strongly in the ongoing work of the Oral Health Policy Task Force. Prevention of dental caries in children will be central to Malawi’s Oral Health Policy and Ronald Manjomo’s PhD project is focusing on this area.

It will be very important to be able to measure the impact of any interventions that are introduced as part of a programme to prevent dental caries in children. However, in order to do so it is essential to establish the baseline level of disease. At present, this is unknown but work is now underway to design and plan a national child oral health survey. This component of the MalDent Project benefits from funding granted by the Borrow Foundation in addition to our core funding from Scottish Government.

A multi-disciplinary team has been established to deliver this survey and the first meeting was held on Friday 23rd April:

The oral health survey team members meet for the first time

The team includes representation from the Malawi Government Ministry of Health, University of Malawi College of Medicine, WHO Africa, Strathclyde University, University of Glasgow, Smileawi and the UK Community Dental Service.

Following general introductions, Nigel and Vicky Milne gave a presentation about the pilot child oral health survey that they had completed with Glasgow and Dundee University elective students in 2019.

Nigel and Vicky Milne illustrate the collaborators in their pilot child oral health survey in 2019

They took us through the various stages of the process …

… including illustrations of their interactions with teachers and pupils …

… and of the dental examinations being undertaken…

The data generated have now been submitted to the African Journal of Public Health and we are awaiting responses from the referees.

One of the most important aspects of the pilot study was to identify specific challenges of undertaking oral health surveys in Malawian schools. A number of lessons were learned, particularly in relation to collecting socio-demographic data from the children and this will help to inform the definitive study design.

One of the other aspects of the Smileawi pilot study related to fluoride content of local water supplies and the prevalence of dental fluorosis among the children examined. This work was undertaken in collaboration with Strathclyde University and provided fascinating data which have now been published in the journal Water:

A copy of the paper can be accessed here.

Professor Bob Kalin, who heads the group at Strathclyde University with which we collaborated, gave a fantastic summary of the joint work and of the wide variation in fluoride concentration of groundwaters in different geographic areas of Malawi. He also described the amazing technology that this group uses to map the boreholes with extensive information on each individual water source. His knowledge and experience will be of great value to our team moving forward.

Bob Kalin showed examples of the on-line detailed data capture systems used by his team

We continue to collaborate closely with Dr Yuka Makino, the WHO Technical Officer for Oral Health in Africa. We are delighted that Yuka has agreed to be part of our team and she gave a presentation on the oral health indicators which the WHO recommends for Africa. We will ensure that the survey design we use maps onto the principles espoused by WHO.

Yuka Makino described the WHO Africa approach to oral health surveys

This first meeting, which introduced the team members to one another and began to lay down the foundations of the survey, will be the first of many. Our intention, COVID-19 permitting, is to complete the planning and ethical approval application this calendar year, with a view to undertaking the survey in the first half of 2022.

John McAslan + Partners take dental teaching facility and student hub a step closer to construction

Following the completion of Stage 1 of the design programme for the new dental teaching facility / student hub on the Blantyre campus of the University of Malawi College of Medicine, the design team, led by John McAslan + Partners, progressed onto Stage 2. The work that had been completed during Stage 2 was presented to the MalDent Project team on Wednesday 6th January 2021.

The team assembled for the presentation of the Stage 2 Report

The design consortium had undertaken a massive amount of further work and the illustrative materials that were presented really started to bring the planned building to life, particularly for those of us who are not accustomed to involvement in projects of this type. Many of the diagrams provided a 3D perspective which was immensely helpful to allow visualisation of the emerging design.

One of many 3D diagrams that were presented

We were shown multiple sections …

… and elevations …

… followed by a fascinating description of the work that was underway to design the surrounding landscaping, moving from original concepts …

… to a more detailed master plan:

Significant further work had also been completed around the mechanical, electrical and plumbing components of the design …

… including a system to capture significant amounts of rainwater for use in the building – part of the sustainability theme running through the design:

The structural and civil engineering elements have also been developed considerably since the completion of Stage 1 …

… with a very interesting discussion of the design concepts around the foundations to fit with the underlying rock and soil structure:

These were just a few of the areas that were discussed during the two hour presentation.

At the end of the meeting, Chris Platt, Paul East and I stayed on the call for an update discussion with Olivia Welch, a dental student at Dundee Dental School, who is undertaking an intercalated degree in global health and whose dissertation is focusing on this design project in the context of sustainability. You will be able to read about Olivia’s work in a subsequent post.

Chris, Paul and I chatting with Olivia about her dissertation

The finalised Stage 2 report was delivered on 9th February 2021. Subsequently, we were authorised by Scottish Government to re-profile some underspend in the MalDent Project budget to allow an extension of the Stage 2 design work in preparation for a building warrant application in Malawi. In turn, this will strengthen our case when interacting with potential donors for the construction costs.

This new phase of work kicked off with a Zoom meeting on Wednesday 21st April 2021, and the outputs will form the basis of a future post.

Discussing the next phase of the design work

The new facility is drawing ever closer!

The MalDent Project is presented at the UUKI International Higher Education Forum 2021

A few weeks ago I was privileged to be invited to participate in a breakout session at this year’s Universities UK International Higher Education Forum. I am very grateful to Professor Paul Garside, our Dean of Global Engagement (Middle East & Africa) at the University of Glasgow, who had suggested to the organisers that the MalDent Project would be a suitable example of a capacity building collaboration between a UK HEI and a university in a low-income country.

The conference took place on 13-14 April 2021.

The MalDent Project presentation was part of the following breakout session:

The session was chaired by Professor Richard Follett, Deputy Pro-Vice-Chancellor & Associate Vice President (International), at the University of Sussex. There were three 10 minute presentations, followed by a discussion between Dr Joanna Newman, Chief Executive & Secretary General of the Association of Commonwealth Universities and Professor Follett.

The first presentation was delivered by Professor Ernest Aryeetey, Secretary-General of the African Research Universities Alliance. I had heard Professor Aryeetey speak previously in Glasgow at the ‘Capacity Strengthening in Africa Symposium on 28 February 2020, when an MOU was signed between the University of Glasgow and the African Research Universities Alliance.

Professor Sir Anton Muscatelli, Principal of the University of Glasgow and Professor Aryeetey signing the MOU

Professor Aryeetey laid out very clearly the importance of the higher education sector in African countries and provided clear insights into ways in which UK HEIs could provide support.

At the outset, he delivered three main messages:

He then spoke about the fundamental importance of investment in Africa’s higher education sector, with a particular emphasis on partnerships and collaboration:

The significant value of international research collaborations was illustrated in a slide that demonstrated how research outputs in least developed countries were increased significantly by working together:

Prof Aryeetey developed this theme further, stressing the importance of international partnerships to strengthen HEIs in Africa:

He looked at various options, some of which resonated very strongly with ongoing interactions between the University of Glasgow and the University of Malawi College of Medicine:

Professor Aryeetey’s concluding slide gave a very clear steer on how ARUA viewed the way forward:

Our presentation on the MalDent Project was the second of the 10 minute presentations. Those who follow our blog will be very familiar with the various components of the work stream and the progress we have made to date. Our contribution to the meeting was to provide an illustration of an ongoing partnership between a UK HEI and a university in a low-income country, with a focus on capacity-building.

The question I was asked to address was:

What are the mutual benefits of partnerships such as the MalDent Project and why should UK universities be supported financially to implement projects such as this?

One of the main capacity building successes of the MalDent Project to date has been the establishment of Malawi’s first Bachelor of Dental Surgery degree programme, based at the University of Malawi College of Medicine:

Malawi’s first ever BDS students at the launch of the degree course in August 2019

However, this is only one element of a much broader programme, which includes work to develop a national oral health policy, with an emphasis on disease prevention. The strong collaboration between the University of Glasgow and the University of Malawi College of Medicine is under-pinning developments that are of direct value and interest to the citizens of Malawi.

Simultaneously, the partnership brings significant value to the University of Glasgow, in the context of its vision in the 2025 strategy to be The World Changing University:

The basis of the established interaction between the University of Glasgow and the University of Malawi College of Medicine embraces three key principles, which I was keen to highlight:

In the context of the MalDent Project, it was our Malawian colleagues who sought advice with issues relating to oral and dental health in their country. In turn, we responded by developing in partnership the work programme that forms the basis of the Maldent Project. In doing so, we have established strong bonds of respect and trust, which have been, and continue to be, essential to our ongoing progress.

The partnership working has expanded far beyond the two central HEIs involved, as I demonstrated in a slide towards the end of the talk. Links with government, professional and civic organisations, charities, NGOs and the broader health sector are critical and illustrate the point that Professor Aryeetey was making about the centrality of strengthening Africa’s HEIs for the common good. Universities carry a major civic responsibility, both locally and globally, a duty which activities like the MalDent Project illustrate very clearly.

The network of partners involved in the MalDent Project

Finally, I was very keen to thank the Scottish Government for its tremendous support of the Maldent Project. It is true to say that without the financial backing of the £1.3m grant from the Scottish Government Malawi Development Funding Round 2018, virtually none of what has been achieved would have been possible. It, therefore, seemed very apt to close with a photograph of Ben Macpherson MSP, former Minister for Europe, Migration and International Development, on a visit to the Lilongwe campus of the University of Malawi College of Medicine, when we had the privilege of explaining our work and showing how the Scottish Government investment was being used.

(L to R): Jeremy Bagg, Peter Chimimba (College of Medicine MalDent Project Lead), Ben Macpherson MSP and Mwapatsa Mipando (College of Medicine Principal)

The final 10 minute presentation was delivered by Mostafa Al-Mossallami, who is the lead adviser on higher education and skills at the UK Government Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO). He talked about the Strategic Partnerships for Higher Education Innovation and Reform (SPHEIR) programme , which aims to strengthen higher education in focus countries to better meet the needs of students, employers and societies. His talk spoke to the question:

‘How is SPHEIR supporting universities in low-income countries to contribute to national development and what role does the FCDO see for higher education in the longer term for global development?’

The breakout session closed with a very interesting discussion between Dr Joanna Newman and Professor Follett on some of the issues raised in the three presentations, giving consideration to whether the newly created FCDO should invest in higher education reform and, if so, why.

It was a really enjoyable 60 minutes. For any of you who would like to view the session in its entirety, it can be accessed below:

Many thanks to UUKI team members Richard Grubb (Senior Policy Officer, sub-Saharan Africa & International Development) and Anna Zvagule (Communications Officer) who briefed us all very fully and ensured that the technical aspects ran smoothly.

Ministry of Health Technical Working Group gives ‘green light’ to Oral Health Policy drafting

At the National Oral Health Policy Workshop held in Lilongwe on 13th and 14th February 2020, Brian Chaima from the Ministry of Health Planning Department provided a clear exposition of the stages that are required to develop a new policy in Malawi. This sequence of activities is explained in detail in an earlier post on this blog, but in summary the first steps are to produce a Concept Paper and a Narrative Review of existing relevant literature, together with completion of a detailed Situation Analysis.

The Oral Health Policy Task Force has now met via Zoom on 13 occasions, with scheduled two hour meetings taking place twice per month. Final drafts of the three preparatory documents listed above were completed by March 2021 and the next stage was for the Ministry of Health Essential Health Package Technical Working Group (EHP TWG) to consider the work completed to date and, if satisfied, to provide a mandate to the Task Force to draft the Oral Health Policy Document itself.

With financial support from the MalDent Project grant, a meeting of the EHP TWG was set up in the Viphya Conference Suite at the Sunbird Capital Hotel in Lilongwe on Thursday 8th April 2021. Those members who were local attended the meeting in person, with appropriate social distancing, whilst others of us joined via Zoom.

Annie Mwapasa, the MalDent Project Administrator at the University of Malawi College of Medicine, made an excellent job of organising and running the meeting. I joined from my desk at Glasgow Dental School.

The EHP TWG meeting about to commence – online for those of us who could not get to Lilongwe in person

In the two weeks prior to the meeting, we had prepared a slide deck so that we could give a detailed presentation to the TWG members. Peter Chimimba, the Maldent Project lead at the College of Medicine, had travelled to Lilongwe from Blantyre and he made an excellent job of delivering the presentation to the delegates.

Peter Chimimba shows our opening slide to introduce our work to date

The three images we chose for the title slide included photos taken during the pilot oral health survey conducted by Smileawi in 2019 in six schools, a photograph of Peter with Ben Macpherson MSP when he visited the College of Medicine Lilongwe campus in September 2018 and finally, one of the images from the Stage 1 design work for the new dental teaching facility and student hub planned for the Blantyre campus of the College of Medicine.

Peter took the TWG through key details of the Policy Concept Paper…

the Narrative Review and the Situation Analysis…

The presentation and the three documents themselves stimulated a lively discussion, with many interesting and valuable perspectives aired by those present.

Ultimately, it was agreed by the TWG that our preparations were in order and that we should now proceed to draft the Policy Document itself, informed by all the previous work we have completed. That drafting will now form the basis of the continuing twice monthly meetings of the Task Force. We have set the end of June 2021 as the deadline for completion and approval of the policy, so we have our work cut out. However, there is a real determination and drive from those involved to move forward and to progress to the implementation phase of the work, which will be critically important if we are to convert the words that appear in our policy into actions that improve the oral health of Malawi’s citizens.

Grateful thanks are due to Noel Kasomekera, Technical Assistant – Non Communicable Disease Unit and National Coordinator, Malawi NCDI Poverty Commission, Ministry of Health Headquarters, for facilitating the EHP TWG meeting and for his continuing outstanding support of the Oral Health Policy Task Force.